Ethical Consumption Review
Studies and thinking on current ethical consumer behaviours, institutions, ideas, interventions and campaigns.
Edward Lander reports on the results of a Freedom of Information request made by Ethical Consumer in 2022.
Ethical Consumer sent out a Freedom of Information (FOI) request to 134 UK universities in February 2022 to find out how much the UK higher education sector has spent on Amazon in recent years. 93 universities replied with data.
Our calculations show that higher education has become more reliant on Amazon in the past three years, with 63% of universities increasing their purchasing with the company. The research found that the average annual Amazon spend for UK universities reached £151,728.93 in 2021.
We have calculated that Amazon secured more than £20 million of income from UK universities in that year. This is despite Ethical Consumer's own figures showing that Amazon's aggressive tax avoidance practices could be depriving the UK exchequer of around £500 million.
Buying ethically is not something that just individuals do. We can also see it happening in clubs, societies, businesses, charities, local authorities and governments. In this second extract from the 'Handbook of Ethical Purchasing', Rob Harrison introduces the five types we tend to see in local governments around the world.
These are: solidarity purchasing, buying locally or for local economic impact, sustainable procurement, social procurement, and attention to investments and assets.
It is estimated that public sector purchasing represents between 11% and 18% of the UK’s gross domestic product and is similar in other countries. There is therefore real potential to improve people’s lives if this kind of ethical purchasing were more widely adopted.
This essay explores the role of gender in the exploitation of agricultural workers in Southern Spain.
Huelva, a province in southern Spain, is the country's top agricultural province, part of a globalized agri-food chain managed by multinationals and commercial distributors (Women’s Link International, 2019). Strawberries are so valuable to the economy of this area that they are nicknamed ‘Spain’s red gold’.
In order to meet high demand for exported fruit while maintaining high profit margins, after the drop in seasonal migrants due to EU migration policies, the farming industry began advertising for seasonal workers in their countries of origin (notably in Morocco and Eastern Europe), and almost exclusively recruited women.
In October 2021, a new book was launched by Rob Harrison, one of the original founders of Ethical Consumer.
The Handbook of Ethical Purchasing is designed to help both ordinary people and industry professionals to understand the movement towards ethical buying, its political background and, most importantly, how to become involved more effectively.
This article explains more about the book, and then shares the first of a series of extracts which appeared in issue 193 Ethical Consumer magazine. The extract discusses the notion of purchaser power, and uses a couple of historic boycott campaigns by way of example. These include the Alabama Bus boycotts of the 1960 and the Shell boycott of 1995.
Climate Gap Report 2021 - Our new report looks at the gap between our current combined consumption emissions and where they need to be by 2030.
It is widely recognised that the next ten years will be critical in turning around global carbon emissions. As one of Ethical Consumer’s contributions to this process, we plan to produce an ‘Annual Climate Gap Report on Progress Towards Sustainable Consumer Lifestyles in the UK’.
The 2021 report, launched during Ethical Consumer Week on October 19th, will be the first in a series.
It aims to track the gap between our current combined consumption emissions and where they need to be by 2030.
The Climate Change Committee (CCC) was set up under the Climate Change Act 2008 to advise the UK government on decarbonisation. The CCC’s 200-page reports have provided most of the data for three of the impact areas we are examining for this Report: Food, Transport and Heating. A core element in this project is therefore trying to convert the CCC’s work into something more digestible for ordinary consumers. For the fourth impact area, Consumer Goods, we have conducted our own research and extrapolated targets and campaigns from elsewhere.
A key goal is to produce a simplified list of key actions for consumers, companies and governments too.
The 2021 has 5 key findings - read on to find out more.
UK Coffee shops fail to convince on climate change - A report on carbon management and reporting at nine UK coffee shop chains.
As public awareness of climate change has increased, some coffee shop chains have been forced to acknowledge consumer demand for more sustainable products and services. This has led to shift towards a ‘greener’ image for many brands, often characterised by reusable cups and plastic alternatives which, in the grand scheme of things, do little towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
We set out to find out what some of the UK's Coffee chains were doing to address and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Each company researched received an Ethical Consumer rating of best, middle or worst for carbon management and reporting.
Our rating results show a need to seriously question why some of the UKs biggest coffee chains are failing in the carbon reduction department.
This report is about the ethics and transparency of corporate political organising. Its case study is Airbnb, one of the biggest companies in the ‘platform’ economy, who resources, mobilises and coordinates its landlords as political advocates to lobby for its preferred forms of regulation.
Airbnb presents carefully curated and intensively coordinated groups of landlords with a single room or property as ‘people power’: independent grassroots groups who share its policy preferences. This offers the company legitimacy and additional political influence to protect a business model that is increasingly dominated by professional accommodation providers.
The report examines Airbnb’s ‘home-sharing clubs’: associations of selected Airbnb landlords that are trained to advocate for favourable regulation. It analyses documents and interviews twenty-one former Airbnb public policy staff who worked across fourteen countries in North America and Europe, in the most intensive and sustained platform-sponsored grassroots lobbying strategy in the world to date.
This report explores the debates surrounding the ethics and impacts of sport hunting and updates the 2016 and 2018 ‘Shooting Wildlife?’ reports – examining how 30 optics companies approach this sensitive subject.
It also expands on the scope of the first two Shooting Wildlife reports to explore optics companies’ links with the military (due to this industry’s large impact on the environment and therefore wildlife), and their approaches to managing their own environment and climate impacts in line with international agreements such as the Paris Agreement on climate change.
As part of the research, we contacted all 30 optics companies featured in the 2018 report, asking for thoughts on the issues raised and requesting information about current environment and climate policies and changes to company policy and practice since 2018. 29 companies are reviewed in this report as the Alpen brand is now distributed by Bresser USA and is therefore included in Bresser’s profile in this report.
A review of Oxfam's current campaign to ‘end human suffering in supermarket supply chains’. Rob Harrison (October 2019)
In June 2018 Oxfam International launched a new global campaign to ‘end human suffering in supermarket supply chains’. Part of this campaign involves producing an annual ranking of major food retailers like Tesco and Walmart against four key social benchmarks, and calling on consumers to contact them using social media to ask them to improve their performance. The first annual update was published in July 2019.
This article explains what the campaign is, explores Oxfam Great Britain’s (GB’s) role in it, and looks at what it might be able to do to increase its impact. It also looks at the campaign against the wider backdrop of large NGOs becoming attracted to the use of ranking corporates as a way of driving social progress…or at least as a way of preventing further social decline.
An exploration of lay understandings of what it means to live well. Anastasia Loukianov (August 2019)
While the consumerist approach to what living well can mean permeates traditional media, the extent to which it appears in people’s own depictions of the good life is unclear. As the unsustainability of the consumerist approach is increasingly evidenced, both in terms of environmental and social impacts, looking into which understandings of the good life resonate with people becomes essential.
This article uses a sample of posts tagged #goodlife and variants originally collected in 2014-2015 on Instagram (a popular image sharing platform) to explore which understandings of the good life can be found on the platform.